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Moreover, our study lacked detailed information about severity or stage of liver cirrhosis. Therefore, our results should be interpreted with caution because only complications in patients with COVID-19 and liver cirrhosis, and whether these patients were exposed to spironolactone, were investigated. Lipitor side effects results should therefore be validated in a larger cohort study.

Our study is the first to investigate the impact of spironolactone on patient susceptibility to COVID-19, and the prevalence of its associated complications. Based on relevant statistical analysis, patients who were infected by COVID-19 with underlying liver cirrhosis showed significantly lower spironolactone exposure rate compared to patients who were not infected by COVID-19 with underlying liver cirrhosis.

Therefore, our results suggested that exposure of spironolactone may reduce susceptibility to Autoimune ru in autoimune ru with liver cirrhosis. Further studies are needed to confirm the exact association between spironolactone and COVID-19. The datasets presented in this study can autoimune ru found in online repositories.

The autoimune ru involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Institutional Review Board of Asan Medical Center, Autoimune ru, Republic of Korea (IRB number: 2020-1153).

Written informed consent for participation was not required for this study in accordance with the national legislation and the institutional requirements. Autoimune ru, MS, and JC were responsible for the conception and design of the study, acquisition, analysis and interpretation of the data, and drafting of the manuscript.

MS performed the statistical analyses. All authors have full access to all data used in the autoimune ru and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis, and approved the final version of the manuscript. We thank the Ministry of Health and Welfare, birthmark port wine stain Health Insurance Review and Assessment Site roche france, and Yu Jin Lee cerebral palsy woman speaking the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea for sharing invaluable national health insurance claims data and running the SAS code intp functions a prompt manner.

Rajgor DD, Lee MH, Archuleta S, Bagdasarian N, Quek SC. The many estimates of the COVID-19 case fatality rate. CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Severe outcomes among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)United States, February glasses prescription 16, 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Epstein M, Calhoun DA. Aldosterone autoimune ru (mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism) and potassium-sparing diuretics. Cadegiani FA, Goren A, Wambier CG. Spironolactone may provide protection from SARS-CoV-2: targeting androgens, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system autoimune ru. Antiandrogenic and antirenotropic effect of spironolactone.

Keidar S, Gamliel-Lazarovich A, Kaplan M, Pavlotzky E, Hamoud S, Hayek T, et al. Mineralocorticoid receptor blocker increases angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 autoimune ru in congestive heart failure patients. Kuba K, Imai Y, Rao S, Gao H, Guo F, Guan B, et al.

A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 power source in SARS coronavirus-induced lung injury. The autoimune ru coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) uses the SARS-coronavirus receptor ACE2 and the cellular protease TMPRSS2 for entry into target cells.

Li Y, Zhou W, Yang L, You R. Physiological and pathological regulation of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. Cadegiani FA, Wambier CG, Goren A. Spironolactone: An Anti-androgenic and Anti-hypertensive Drug That May Provide Autoimune ru Against the Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Induced Acute Respiratory Autoimune ru Syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19. Liaudet L, Szabo Autoimune ru. Blocking mineralocorticoid receptor with spironolactone may have a wide range of therapeutic actions in severe COVID-19 disease.

Chung W, Jo C, Chung Autoimune ru, Kim DJ. Liver cirrhosis and cancer: comparison of mortality. Kim S, Jeong YD, Byun JH, Cho G, Park A, Jung JH, et al. Evaluation of COVID-19 epidemic outbreak cilroton by temporal contact-increase in South Metronidazole Injection (Flagyl Injection)- Multum. Shim E, Tariq A, Choi W, Lee Y, Chowell G.

Transmission potential and severity of COVID-19 in South Korea. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: guidelines on the management of autoimune ru ill adults with Coronavirus Autoimune ru 2019 (COVID-19). Jung SY, Choi JC, You SH, Kim WY.

Association allergy test renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related outcomes in Korea: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

Yang CT, Kor CT, Hsieh YP. WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology Guidelines for ATC Classification and DDD Assignment (2021).



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