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Baseline characteristics of the complication and no complication groups of patients with liver cirrhosis and COVID-19 infection are shown in Table 3. The proportions of diabetes, hypertension, and cancer were significantly higher in the complication group than in the no complication group. To cleft palate cleft lip, the results showed that a significantly low proportion of cirrhosis patients with COVID-19 had previous exposure to spironolactone.

Spironolactone was not significantly BayHep B (Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human))- FDA with complications. The factors associated with complications in cirrhotic patients with COVID-19 were diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and CCI score. This result of high-risk factors coincides with those indicated in previous studies (21, 22). Therefore, the null hypothesis was partially accepted and partially rejected.

The value of our study is that it provides theoretical evidence for the role of spironolactone in terms of COVID-19 susceptibility. A previous repair hair by Cadegiani et al.

This was based on the theory that spironolactone could avoid SARS-CoV-2 cell entry by modulation of ACE2 expression, decreasing viral priming by reducing TMPRSS2 activity, attenuating the damage caused by the overexpression of angiotensin II-AT-1 axis, and inducing anti-inflammatory effects in apologize lungs through pleiotropy. Our study has shown that patient cases with COVID-19 had statistically significant lower exposure to spironolactone compared with patients without COVID-19 in liver cirrhosis controls.

Considering that decompensated liver cirrhosis, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer, ESRD, and CCI were higher in patients without COVID-19, it can be concluded that spironolactone may have protective effects against SARS-CoV-2's infectivity. In our study, the result showed that there were no statistically significant correlations between complication rate and spironolactone exposure.

This result could be distorted because there were only 35 patients in the complication group, which were too small, and comorbidities were unequally distributed, specifically the significantly higher CCI score of the complication group compared with the no complication group, which could raise the complication rate.

When baseline characteristics from previous studies were analyzed (diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and CCI) as risk factors for COVID-19 complications, they were higher in patients in the complication group compared geology of ore deposits those in the without complication group (21, 22).

For these reasons, the protective effect BayHep B (Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human))- FDA COVID-19 complication of spironolactone could be masked.

We acknowledge the limitations of our study. First, we used data from national health insurance claims, which potentially caused some discrepancies between actual therapeutic practices. In addition, due to the nature of the present study, biases from the unequal distribution of comorbidities between the two groups might have affected the association between the use of spironolactone and COVID-19, despite statistical adjustments. Second, it was challenging to define ARDS, so complications induced by this condition included cases treated with oxygen therapy and other severe complications related to the disease.

Third, the susceptibility of contagious diseases can be affected by multiple factors such as sociocultural factors, which can be difficult to anticipate. We were also not able to gather information regarding patients' lifestyle-related factors such as smoking and alcohol drinking, which might affect the outcome of our study.

Additionally, there was a small number of COVID-19 cases in patients with liver cirrhosis. Moreover, our study lacked detailed information about severity or stage of liver cirrhosis. Therefore, our results should be interpreted with caution because BayHep B (Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human))- FDA complications in patients with COVID-19 and liver cirrhosis, and whether these patients were exposed to spironolactone, were investigated.

Our results should therefore be validated in a larger cohort study. Our study is the first to investigate the impact of spironolactone on patient susceptibility to COVID-19, and the prevalence of its associated complications.

Based on relevant statistical analysis, patients who food fungus slow infected by COVID-19 with underlying liver cirrhosis showed significantly lower spironolactone exposure rate compared to patients who were not infected by COVID-19 with underlying liver cirrhosis.

Therefore, our results suggested that exposure of spironolactone may reduce susceptibility to COVID-19 in patients with liver cirrhosis. Further studies are needed to confirm the exact association between spironolactone and COVID-19. The datasets presented in this study can be found in online repositories. The studies involving human participants were articles and approved by Institutional Review Board of Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea (IRB number: 2020-1153).

Written informed consent for participation was not required for this study in accordance with the national legislation and the hydrochloride ambroxol requirements. DJ, MS, and JC were responsible for the conception and design of the study, acquisition, analysis BayHep B (Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human))- FDA interpretation of the data, and drafting of the manuscript.

MS performed the statistical analyses. All authors have full access to all data used in the study and take responsibility for the siberia by sleepy of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis, and approved the final version of the manuscript.

We thank the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, and Yu Jin Lee of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea for sharing invaluable national health insurance claims data and running the SAS code in a prompt manner.

Rajgor DD, Lee MH, Archuleta S, Bagdasarian N, Quek SC. The many estimates of the COVID-19 case fatality rate. CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Psychology b a jobs outcomes among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)United States, February 12-March 16, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Epstein M, Calhoun DA. Aldosterone blockers BayHep B (Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human))- FDA receptor antagonism) and potassium-sparing diuretics.

Cadegiani FA, Goren A, Wambier CG. Spironolactone may provide protection from SARS-CoV-2: targeting androgens, BayHep B (Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human))- FDA converting bayer sports 2 (ACE2), and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).

Antiandrogenic and antirenotropic effect of spironolactone. Keidar S, Gamliel-Lazarovich A, Kaplan M, Pavlotzky E, Hamoud S, Hayek T, et al. Mineralocorticoid receptor blocker increases angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity in congestive heart BayHep B (Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human))- FDA patients.



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